Apical split has been cleaned and shaped with precurved stainless steel Mani endodontic K files. Passive ultrasonic irrigation with NaOCl 5%. Filled with gutta and NeoMTA Plus from Avalon Biomed
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A single canal fast break usually indicate a split in root canal apical third. In this mandibular first molar the canal had split into three branches. Each of it having its own portal of exit. Each branch had to be successively shaped then filled. High magnification with coaxial Xenon illumination allowed to visualize those entries during the procedure. Instrumentation has been performed with Mani stainless K files and ProTaper Universal (Dentsply). Chelator: RC Prep. PUI Irrigation: NaOCl 5%. Ultrasonic tip: BUC One from Spartan. P5 (Dentsply) Sealer used: Pulp Canal Sealer. Obturation technique WVC. X Ray Sensors used: CareStream Kodak 6100.
42 year old patient had pain to both cold and hot and could not eat on this side for the late 7 months. She has been seen by two previous dentists and endured a lot of pain for so long because pre operative X rays showed no signs of visible recurrent tooth decay as well as no obvious signs of periodontal ligament thickening, both X ray signs indicating a potential need for a root canal. Composite filling also showed no clinical signs of leakage. Upon reading the pre operative Xray we could see that the pulp horns were very long and almost touched the filling. I suggested to remove composite filling in order to check underneath. Tooth decay was indeed present and pulp got exposed before the completion of tooth decay removal. Furthermore a vertical crack line was present in distal. Patient also fractured and lost her second mandibular molar due to clenching.
An intricate root canal procedure. Case study number 524236
Two successive root canal procedure attemps failed on this mandibular molar. In the past three years patient had to take many courses of antibiotics to control pain and swelling. Patient is unable to chew on that tooth. An extraction and an implant supported crown has been suggested but patient wants to keep his own tooth despite all this.
Clinical examination shows vestibular swelling, probing does not show any narrow deep pocket. On radiographic examination filling material is overextended in distal root and a large bone rarefaction area is present on distal root tip.
Retreatment of the root canal on distal root is suggested because an untreated fourth canal is suspected. Once filling material has been removed no extra canal could be found, instead, with the help of high magnification an apical delta or Vertucci’s type V pulp space configuration could be noticed. A Vertucci type V pulp space configuration can be described as follow: One canal leaves the pulp chamber and divides short of the apex into two separate distinct canals with distinct foramina (1-2). According to Vertucci’s study in 1984 on a 100 mandibular molars sample, the type V configuration in distal root, occurred only in 8% of the teeth examined.
Consequently the untreated branch is filled with necrotic pulp and bacteria releasing toxins into the surrounding bone area. An ISO files number 08 is inserted into the untreated branch, then, a NiTi file is also inserted into the retreated branch through the same canal entry and a second Xray is taken. The second Xray clearly displays the apical split in last apical third of distal single canal. Each part of the split in distal root has been individually cleaned and shaped. NiTi files allowed us to follow both curved branches. Root canals have been filled with calcium Hydroxide and patient came back 8 days later to have those filled with Pulp Canal Sealer and gutta percha. (Lateral and vertical condensation). Last (Angulated) X ray to the right shows the two branches after final obturation.
Tooth symptoms have subsided shortly after calcium hydroxide have been inserted into the root canal system. Two months have passed and tooth is still symptoms free. Being able to get magnification and bring illumination to the root canal tip allowed for that tooth to be preserved. Patient was told to protect his tooth with cusp coverage.
Endodontist. Case Study Number 197337
The recent addition of dental operative microscope (DOM) to endodontic therapy can allow better visualization and management of the intricate morphology of the root canal system during endodontic procedures through magnification and greatly improved high intensity lighting. Dental Microscope typically magnifies in the 4X to 25X range. The other commonly used magnification aide, through lens eyeglass mounted surgical telescopes, provides 2.5X to 4.5X magnification.
We have been presented with this second mandibular molar that has only two canal entries on pulpal chamber floor. At first sight one could have easily concluded the presence of only two canals. In fact, the mesial root has a Vertucci’s type 5 canal configuration. A Vertucci type V pulp space configuration can be described as follow: One canal leaves the pulp chamber and divides short of the apex into two separate distinct canals with two distinct foramina (1-2). Without magnification the root canal apical “split” could have been under seen, treating one branch out of two and leaving pulp tissue inside the other branch.
Surgical operating microscopes have a steep learning curve and require training, as well as patience and practice to master. Still this piece of equipment and the learning effort it implies is well worth it since cases that once seemed impossible can now be treated with a high degree of confidence and clinical success.
As the saying goes:”A picture is worth a thousand words”, Click here to have a look at what can be seen at an operative field under magnified observation (10X to 25X range).
Case Study Number 397137
Tooth history: First attempt of RCT on this mandibular second molar in 2005 did not eliminate symptoms, a second attempt in 2006 did not turned out to be any better, tooth was still having episodes of severe pain (preoperative X ray dental film taken in January 2007). Patient was told by the second practitioner to remove that tooth but she would rather try to save it for the third time.
Patient was already aware of the tooth poor prognosis and that implant therapy would be the safest way to eliminate symptoms. Still she agreed to retreat the tooth endodontically.
During the procedure, a zip with perforation and apex blunderbuss could be noted on mesial root canals as well as in distal root canal. An apical split (with no existing apical constrictions) was also noted by probing in the distal canal. Serous exsudate was coming out of those root canals in such an amount that it could not be dried even with lots of paper points. Calcium hydroxide was inserted into the canals and patient came back 8 days later. By then symptoms had subsided. After removal of calcium hydroxide into the canals, serous exsudate was still present but in lesser amount. Another attempt with calcium hydroxide replacement was made. Patient came back, symptoms free, 2 weeks later. At this point, almost no exsudate was remaining. All canals, including apical split in distal root, were “plugged” with MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) under high magnification. Coronal part of the tooth was sealed with a posterior composite and no promises where made to the patient who decided not to invest in a crown considering the prognosis. This procedure has been achieved in August 2007, the X ray dental film on the right shows a 4 years post operative outcome. Even though circumscribe apical radiolucency is still present the tooth remained symptom free and functional.
In this specific case, MTA used as a root-end filling material proved so far to be effective in promoting regeneration of the original tissues when it is placed in contact with the periradicular tissues. High magnification with excellent coaxial illumination insured a better placement of this material.
To read more about MTA applications please go to:
2 Dr. Chivian is director of Dentistry. Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, NJ.
Calcified Canals. Case Study Number 487445
Clinical examination: Sinus tract, mobility: 0, deciduous amalgam restoration.
Radiographic examination: Alveolar bone with circumscribed lucency, apical root canal split, hypertaurodontism (bull’s tooth), apical root canal split branches not visible on X ray dental film, hypercementosis
Diagnosis: pulpal necrosis with chronic periapical infection,
Etiology: marginal leakage, caries
Root canal procedure:
First appointment: gaining access to the split, locating entries, shaping and cleaning apical root canal branches inserting intracanal medication for 8 days.
Second appointment: intracanal medication retrieval, copious CHX 2% irrigation, drying canals and permanent root canal obturation with Pulp Canal Sealer and gutta percha (lateral and vertical condensation).
In that specific case, microscope was most helpful during all the following steps necessary to insure a better prognosis for this patient:
1) Locating and gaining access to buccal and lingual root canal entries (apical split was clearly visible under magnified observation)
2) Striving to find a third branch in apical split minimizing the chances of omitting an untreated canal
3) Aiming at the right root canal orifice when:
- Inserting the two first endodontic files to confirm canal lengths
- inserting a file sequence to shape and clean each canal
- Positioning irrigating syringe needle tip and calcium hydroxide syringe tip toward the right canal entry
- Inserting absorbent paper points in both canals when drying canals
- Inserting master, accessory gutta percha cones and finger plugger when doing final obturation with lateral and vertical condensation
4) Checking for pulpal tissue remnants prior to final obturation to minimise the chances of pushing them back into the apical area
Case Study Number 455336
Irreversible pulpitis, deep carie, deciduous restoration, broken lingual wall. First molar with 4 root canals. Two mesial root canals no longer visible in middle and apical third with a curvature into “C” form. A file number 08 ISO follows a 90 degrees curvature in one of two distal root canals (per op. X ray dental film).
These canals in the distal root are presenting a dilaceration or sudden angular bend, according to Dr John Ide Ingle:
“The major problem in these cases is the exploration, hence the pathfinder curve in the instrument”.
To my opinion, the main problem is the complete files sequence. These curves require much more endodontic expertise to deal with than the mesial root gradual curve.
Pulpitis irreversible, caries profunda,restauracion obsoleta(caduca, en pesimas condiciones), pared lingual fracturada(quebrada). Primer molar con 4 canales radiculares. Dos canales radiculares mesiales no visibles de lejos en tercio medio y un tercer canal radicular con una curvatura interna en forma de “C”. Una lima 08 ISO seguida con una curvatura de 90 grados en uno de los dos canales radiculares distales.